LoGoSO Research Papers
Go here for the publication series of the research project: LoGoSO Research Papers
Report 2 (February 2017) “Local Public Administration and Governance In Comparative Perspective” by Judith Szeili and Annette Zimmer
T2 Local Government and Administration
The report describes local public administration and social policy in Germany as part of a multilevel setting. The municipalities in Germany are the lowest level of the administration and they are both responsible for implementing policies from higher levels (notably the federal states and the national level) and have some degree of local autonomy in governing their own affairs. One problem is that the number and scope of local tasks is rising, without enhancing available funding.
The municipalities have a long history of collaborating with social organizations, in particular in social service provision. They are important partners who are involved in both policy-making and implementation in a number of ways.
Report 4 (February 2017) “Current Migration Trends in Germany” by Danielle Gluns
T4 Current Migration Trends in Germany
The report outlines the long history of immigration in Germany. The country thus has significant experience with the integration of foreigners in terms of both successful and failed approaches. Currently, the debate on migration and integration focus on the recent arrival of refugees most notably from Syria. This group has made up a large share (37 percent) of incoming migrants in 2016. Even so, the recent immigration of refugees comprises a highly heterogeneous group in terms of countries of origin, legal status, age, education, health etc. This confronts the state and organizations in Germany with significant tasks for finding adequate support structures.
Report 5 (March 2017) “Local Public Administration and Social policy in Germany and China” by Katja Levy
T5 Comparative Report on Local Public Administration and Local Social Policy
Comparative report on local public administration and local social policy with a special eye on the welfare mix and provision of service.
Report 10 (March 2018) “Education Policy and Integration in Germany” by Christina Grabbe
T10 Policy Report on Education in Germany (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 1)
The report provides an overview of the educational system in Germany in terms of childcare, primary and secondary schooling and vocational training. It is characterized by German federalism, causing a diversity of structures. Compulsory education in Germany covers nine or ten years of schooling. Depending on their educational attainment in primary school, children attend different forms of secondary schools. Higher education is generally accessible for all students with Abitur or equivalent diploma. Based on human rights and international law, refugees should have full access to education in Germany. In practice, access to education depends on federal structures, locally available facilities, residence titles and language capacity. Refugee children are underrepresented in childcare facilities, whereas their participation in primary and secondary schooling is mainly ensured. However, education is often restricted within the first months of their stay and in some Länder schooling for refugees takes place separately from the regular school system. Access to vocational training has recently been opened to refugees, even if some limitations remain. The state has introduced assistance measures for refugees. Social organizations and volunteers provide language tutoring, homework assistance, training and qualification.
Report 11 (January 2018) “Labour Market Policy and Integration in Germany” by Danielle Gluns
T11 Policy Report on Employment in Germany (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 2)
The report discusses employment policy and the integration of refugees into the labour market. Employment policy in Germany combines “passive” financial transfers and “active” qualification measures. Moreover, “activating” measures were introduced in 2004 to mobilize unemployed persons. Basically, social insurance-based benefits (Unemployment Benefits I) can be distinguished from basic income support (Unemployment Benefits II) as a means-tested social security system. Beneficiaries of both systems usually have access to measures such as education and training, counselling and placement, or support for self-employed work. Refugees’ access to the labour market depends on their residence title, country of origin and duration of stay. Access to supporting measures such as counselling and qualification is rather open. Moreover, different language tuition courses exist, because language capacities are a crucial prerequisite for accessing employment. Non-profit organizations provide many of these services either autonomously or under contract with public actors such as the local job centres.
Report 12 (January 2018) “Social Services for Vulnerable Groups in Germany” by Danielle Gluns
T12 Policy Report on Vulnerable Groups in Germany (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 3)
The report focuses on services for minors, female and “queer” (lesbian, gay, bi- and transsexual, transgender, and intersexual, or LGBTTI) refugees, elderly or disabled, as well as traumatized persons. These groups – while comprising very heterogeneous living situations – are particularly vulnerable and thus in need of special protection or services. For example, they may require specific health services, while at the same time access to the health care system in Germany is restricted within the first 15 months of the stay. Therefore, legal provisions allow for additional services e.g. for elderly, disabled or traumatized refugees. Voluntary offers supplement these professional services. Moreover, unaccompanied minors are particularly addressed by German law, whereas children and youth entering Germany with their parents or a legal guardian are subject to the same treatment as their parents. Female refugees, in particular pregnant and breast-feeding women, are also subject to special protection provisions and services, many of which are provided by non-profit organizations (NPOs). The particular vulnerabilities of LGBTTI refugees have recently been recognized more strongly by law and administrative practice, also due to the lobbying activities of NPOs.
Report 13 (January 2018) “Social Assistance for Refugees in Germany” by Danielle Gluns
T13 Policy Report on Social Assistance in Germany (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 4)
The report covers the fields of financial benefits, accommodation, counselling, language tuition and social support. In general, the rights regarding social assistance of asylum seekers and persons with exceptional leave to remain are less encompassing than those of German citizens or recognized refugees. Their rights are covered by the Asylum Seekers Benefit Act, which provides for slightly lower financial assistance than Germans social security payments (for the first 15 months of the stay). The federal government or the länder make most of the policies regarding social assistance, even if the municipalities have some leeway in their implementation. This leads to a great diversity of services in practice. The local level has most flexibility regarding voluntary tasks such as language tuition or counselling. They are often provided in collaboration with non-profit organizations, which are supported by funding or coordination.
Report 17 (May 2018) “Refugee Integration Policy and Public Administration in Berlin” by Danielle Gluns
T17 City Report: Berlin (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 6)
The report outlines the local refugee integration policy and its implementation by the public administration in Berlin. It starts by giving an overview of the political, administrative and social structures in the German capital, before presenting in more detail the responsibilities for refugee integration policy. A number of public bodies are involved in making and implementing integration policy, and tasks are shared between the city and the district levels of the city-state Berlin. Moreover, the content of integration policies is explained, focusing on the four research areas of the project: employment, education, vulnerable groups and social assistance. Berlin draws on a number of federal, state and local programs to support refugee integration, e.g. in terms of providing training, language tuition, health care services, accommodation and counselling. Many of these services are not provided directly, but by a broad variety of non-profit organizations. Some of them have been active in Berlin for years, whereas others have emerged in response to the increase in refugee migration in 2015/16. The city cooperates with these organizations in a number of ways, some of which will be researched in more detail in the upcoming case studies of the project.
Report 18 (August 2018) “Refugee Integration Policy and Public Administration in Cologne” by Christina Grabbe
T18 City Report: Cologne (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 7)
The report focuses on local refugee integration policy and its implementation by the public administration in Cologne. It starts by outlining the general administrative and social structures and traditions in Germany´s fourth most populous city and then turns to refugee integration in detail. The city understands integration as a long-term political goal cutting across various administrative departments. Therefore, several public bodies are involved in making and implementing integration policy. Coordinating entities have been introduced recently to facilitate the integration of refugees. Furthermore, the report highlights the specific integration policies of the city in the four research areas of the project: employment, education, vulnerable groups and social assistance. In these fields, Cologne implements federal and state programs. Additionally, the city deploys an integration budget in order to set up and subsidize local projects targeting the special needs of migrants and refugees. In most of these programmes, the municipality does not provide the services for refugees itself, but relies on the cooperation with non-profit organizations. They range from longstanding welfare associations to newly formed initiatives and migrant organizations. The report presents the involvement of these non-profit organizations in the policy fields under study.
Report 19 (March 2019) “Migrant Integration as a Challenge for Local Governments and Social Organizations in China and Germany – Policy Traditions and Integration Measures in Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Berlin and Cologne” by Anja Ketels
T19 Comparative City Report (LoGoSO Research Papers Nr. 8)
The comparative research project LoGoSO Germany China focuses on the integration measures for migrants in four different cities. Berlin and Cologne in Germany and Guangzhou and Hangzhou in China are characterized by particular large numbers of migrants and a well-established philanthropic sector. This report outlines the policy traditions and integration measures of the four cities and compares the challenges for the municipalities as well as the role of social organizations (SOs) in the service provision for migrants. While all cities have their own peculiarities and distinct features, the report finds that the main challenges for the local governments are similar. SOs are an important factor for developing new ideas and structures and all city administrations heavily depend on their assistance. In China, the main way to involve SOs are government procurement of services while in Germany, SOs are important partners for the governments but mostly work independently and implement their ideas in their own way.